[35][36] It limited the size of the Hungarian army to six infantry and two cavalry divisions. [109] In the Treaty of Bucharest (1916) Romania was promised Transylvania and some other territories to the east of river Tisza, provided that she attacked Austria-Hungary from the south-east, where defences were weak. Trattato del Trianon; trattato di adesione CE; trattato di adesione UE; Trattato di Amiens; trattato di Amsterdam; Trattato di Amsterdam; trattato magyar fordítás és meghatározás "trattato", olasz-magyar szótár online. The central parts of Banat were later assigned to Romania, respecting the wishes of Romanians from this area, which, on 1 December 1918, were present in the National Assembly of Romanians in Alba Iulia, which voted for union with the Kingdom of Romania. Il trattato venne firmato il 4 giugno 1920 nel palazzo del Grande Trianon di Versailles, in Francia.Gli attori principali del trattato furono le potenze vincitrici, i loro alleati, e la parte sconfitta. In 1918 Germany tried to overwhelm the Allies on the Western Front; it failed. 75% of its former pre-WWI territories (325,411 km2 (125,642 sq mi)) without a fight and was subject to foreign occupation.[32]. Published by Danubian Press, 1969 This treaty was mainly designed by French and British representatives. This sum sunk to a mere 8.6 million crowns after the treaty took effect and resulted in a starving of capital in other regions of the former empire.[132]. Beside exclusion of the previously mentioned territories, they did not include: By the Treaty of Trianon, the cities of Pécs, Mohács, Baja and Szigetvár, which were under Serb-Croat-Slovene administration after November 1918, were assigned to Hungary. Europarl8 Europarl8 . Ad esempio rimasero circa 450-550.000 tedeschi (550.062 secondo il censimento del 1920, 477.153 secondo il censimento del 1930), 140.000 slovacchi (141.877 secondo il censimento del 1920, 104.786 secondo il censimento del 1939), e circa 45.000 serbi e croati (47.337 croati e 7.031 serbi secondo il censimento del 1930). Il trattato venne firmato il 4 giugno 1920 nel palazzo del Grand Trianon di Versailles (Francia). Under the forced exchange of population between Czechoslovakia and Hungary, approximately 73,000 Slovaks left Hungary and according to different estimations 120,500[94][95] or 45,000[96] Hungarians moved to present day Hungarian territory from Czechoslovakia. [46] The communist party and communist policies only had real popular support among the proletarian masses of large industrial centers – especially in Budapest – where the working class represented a high proportion of the inhabitants. Environment, Space, Place 8.2 (2016): 69–97. 100 Jahre Erster Weltkrieg Ungarns Trauma von Trianon. Trattato del Trianon translation in Italian-English dictionary. I. Svennilson, Growth and Stagnation in the European Economy (Geneva, 1954). By Domokos G. Kosáry, Steven Béla Várdy, Danubian Research Center Adolf Hitler, applicando sino alle estreme conseguenze i principi nazionalisti, pianificò l'annessione alla Germania di tutti i territori fuori dai confini della madrepatria abitati da Tedeschi, e avviò a soluzione finale l'eliminazione degli Ebrei. Unemployment levels in Austria, as well as in Hungary, were dangerously high, and industrial output dropped by 65%. On 1 December 1919, the Hungarian delegation was officially invited to the Versailles Peace Conference; however, the newly defined borders of Hungary were nearly concluded without the presence of the Hungarians. In addition, the structure of its economy collapsed, because it had relied on other parts of the pre-war Kingdom. It outlined a policy of free trade, open agreements, and democracy. Peter Pastor, "The United States' Role in the Shaping of the Peace Treaty of Trianon.". [citation needed]. [118], Hungary's bitter memory was also a source of regional tension after the Cold War ended in 1989. Days later the Communists purged the Social Democrats from the government. Bilingualism was also disappearing. Many roads and railways, running along the newly defined borders and interlinking radial transport lines, ended up in different, highly introvert countries. Variously mentioned throughout Glenny, Misha. ", Peter Pastor, "Hungarian and Soviet Efforts to Possess Ruthenia", Spatiul istoric si etnic romanesc, Editura Militara, Bucuresti, 1992. As a result, as many as a third of Hungarian language-speakers found themselves outside the borders of the post-Trianon Hungary.[97]. The Károlyi government failed to manage both domestic and military issues and lost popular support. Within the borders of "Hungary proper" numerous ethnic minorities were present: 16.1% Romanians, 10.5% Slovaks, 10.4% Germans, 2.5% Ruthenians, 2.5% Serbs and 8% others. Ελέγξτε τις μεταφράσεις του "Trattato del Trianon" στα Ελληνικά. Tratatul a fost semnat în Palatul Marele Trianon de la Versailles de către 16 state aliate (inclusiv România), pe de o parte, și de Ungaria, de altă parte. [3] The army of post-Trianon Hungary was to be restricted to 35,000 men and there was to be no conscription. Under the terms of the armistice, Serbian and French troops advanced from the south, taking control of the Banat and Croatia. [65] This opinion was not taken into account during the negotiations. 2,431,273 "others" (mostly Hungarians – 1,662,948 (31.6%) and Germans – 563,087 (10.7%)). Instead it negotiated a separate peace treaty with Hungary in 1921 that did not contradict the terms of the Trianon treaty.[55]. A. J. P. Taylor, The Habsburg Monarchy 1809–1918, 1948. By the arbitrations of Germany and Italy, Hungary expanded its borders towards neighbouring countries before and during World War II. In addition, 61% of arable land, 74% of public roads, 65% of canals, 62% of railroads, 64% of hard surface roads, 83% of pig iron output, 55% of industrial plants, and 67% of credit and banking institutions of the former Kingdom of Hungary lay within the territory of Hungary's neighbours. The key success of fast development was specialisation of each region in fields that they were best. Il trattato fu ritenuto unilaterale e ingiusto anche dai contemporanei e secondo alcuni storici contribuì in modo significativo allo scoppio della Seconda guerra mondiale. It regulated the status of the independent Hungarian state[citation needed] and defined its borders generally within the ceasefire lines established in November–December 1918 and left Hungary as a landlocked state that included 93,073 square kilometres (35,936 sq mi), 28% of the 325,411 square kilometres (125,642 sq mi) that had constituted the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary (the Hungarian half of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy). After World War II approximately 200,000 Germans were deported to Germany, according to the decree of the Potsdam Conference. The Allies had explicitly committed themselves to the causes of the minority peoples of Austria-Hungary late in World War I. [116] Most Hungarians regarded the treaty as an insult to the nation's honour. There, between 25–30 May, Romanian forces were required to defend their position against Hungarian attacks. [2][3][4][5] French diplomats played the major role in designing the treaty, with a mind to establishing French-led coalition of the newly formed nations. The number of non-Hungarian and Hungarian communities in the different areas based on the census data of 1910 (in this, people were not directly asked about their ethnicity, but about their native language). The de facto temporary borders of independent Hungary were defined by the ceasefire lines in November–December 1918. Guarda gli esempi di traduzione di Trattato del Trianon nelle frasi, ascolta la pronuncia e impara la grammatica. 1,687,977 Slovaks [according to the 1921 census: 1,941,942 Slovaks], 1,233,454 "others" (mostly Hungarians – 886,044, Germans, Ruthenians and Roma) [according to the 1921 census: 1,058,928 of "others"], 1,366,000 others (mostly Hungarians and Germans), 275,932 "others" (mostly Hungarians, Germans, Romanians, and Slovaks), 69,858 "others" (mainly Croatian and Hungarian). Il trattato venne firmato il 4 giugno 1920 nel palazzo del Grand Trianon di Versailles (Francia) Post-Trianon Hungary possessed 90% of the engineering and printing industry of the pre-war Kingdom, while only 11% of timber and 16% of iron was retained. This census recorded population by language and religion, but not by ethnicity. A. Basch, European Economic Nationalism (Washington, 1943); L. Pasvolsky, Economic Nationalism of the Danubian States (New York, 1929). The ceasefire line had the character of a temporary international border until the treaty. "Hungarian Revisionism in Thought and Action, 1920–1941: Plans, Expectations, Reality" in Marina Cattaruzza ed., Várdy, Steven Béla. The Treaty of Trianon was signed between the Allied Forces and Kingdom of Hungary. The Communists remained bitterly unpopular[45] in the Hungarian countryside, where the authority of that government was often nonexistent. On 20 March 1919, Béla Kun, who had been imprisoned in the Markó Street prison, was released. La ĉi-suba teksto estas aŭtomata traduko de la artikolo Treaty of Trianon article en la angla Vikipedio, farita per la sistemo GramTrans on 2017-08-23 15:01:21. It proved to be immensely challenging for the successor states to successfully transform their economies to adapt to the new circumstances. These decisions and their consequences have been the cause of deep resentment in Hungary ever since. Il trattato venne firmato il 4 giugno 1920 nel palazzo del Grand Trianon di Versailles (Francia). Germany, the major ally of Austria-Hungary in World War I, suffered numerous losses during Hundred Days Offensive between August and November 1918 and was in negotiation of armistice with Allied Powers from beginning of October 1918. Officially the treaty was intended to be a confirmation of the right of self-determination for nations and of the concept of nation-states replacing the old multinational Austro-Hungarian empire. However, on 14 November, Serbia occupied Pécs.[38][39]. Hungary was progressing economically very well during late 19 th century into the twentieth century. Il principio della riorganizzazione, su base etnica, della carta dell'Europa, accolto dal trattato in base ai Quattordici punti di Woodrow Wilson, paradossalmente - secondo lo storico britannico Eric Hobsbawm - fornì una giustificazione alle successive pulizie etniche e, addirittura, all'Olocausto degli Ebrei[2]. ", This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 22:52. Treaty of Trianon, and Protocol THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE BRITISH EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY and JAPAN, These Powers being described in the present Treaty as the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, BELGIUM, CHINA, CUBA, GREECE, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, POLAND, PORTUGAL, ROUMANIA, THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, SIAM, and CZECHO-SLOVAKIA, The disseminating economic problems had been also noted in the Coolidge Report as a serious potential aftermath of the treaty. Il trattato del Trianon fu il trattato di pace con cui le potenze vincitrici della prima guerra mondiale stabilirono le sorti del Regno d'Ungheria in seguito alla dissoluzione dell'Impero austro-ungarico. Furthermore, many trading routes that went through the newly defined borders from various parts of the pre-war kingdom were abandoned. It called for a negotiated end to the war, international disarmament, the withdrawal of the Central Powers from occupied territories, the creation of a Polish state, the redrawing of Europe's borders along ethnic lines, and the formation of a League of Nations to guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all states. Ovviamente questi non furono mai rispettati dai paesi eredi. The truncated Kingdom had a population of 7.6 million, 36% compared to the pre-war kingdom's population of 20.9 million. The Royal Romanian Army marched into Budapest on 4 August 1919. Il numero di ungheresi in queste province, basato sul censimento del 1910 era: La popolazione ungherese in tutte queste regioni diminuì dopo il trattato, anche se minoranze ungheresi risiedono ancora oggi nei paesi limitrofi. "Major trends in Hungarian foreign policy from the collapse of the monarchy to the peace treaty of Trianon. [111] For non-Hungarians from the Pannonian Basin it was a process of decolonisation instead of a punitive dismemberment (as was seen by the Hungarians). Trattato del Trianon (1920) - Trattato di pace firmato dopo la Prima guerra mondiale, col quale l'Ungheria perse il 72% circa dei suoi territori. G. Gratz and R. Schuller, Die Wirtschaftliche Zusammenbruch Oesterreich Ungarns (Vienna. Part of Transylvania south of the Mureş river (Romanian: Mureş; Hungarian: Maros) and east of the Someş river (Romanian: Someş; Hungarian: Szamos), which came un… the Treaty of Trianon France started or planned to form new allies. Their views were disregarded by the Allied representatives. Due to the full disarmament of its army, Hungary was to remain without a national defence at a time of particular vulnerability. This territorial expansion was short-lived, since the post-war Hungarian boundaries in the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 were nearly identical to those of 1920 (with three villages – Horvátjárfalu, Oroszvár, and Dunacsún – transferred to Czechoslovakia). [47] On 20 May 1919, a force under Colonel Aurél Stromfeld attacked and routed Czechoslovak troops from Miskolc. Ufficio Centrale di Statistica, Mappa dei confini ungheresi nel novembre/dicembre 1918, Il Trattato del Trianon e lo scorporamento dell'Ungheria, Il Trattato del Trianon e le sue tragiche conseguenze, https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Trattato_del_Trianon&oldid=112504118, Accordi diplomatici della prima guerra mondiale, Voci non biografiche con codici di controllo di autorità, licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione-Condividi allo stesso modo, Riassetto dell'Europa danubiana, con ampie cessioni territoriali a favore di, sempre in conformità al trattato di Saint-Germain, gran parte del. [92], After the treaty, the percentage and the absolute number of all Hungarian populations outside of Hungary decreased in the next decades (although, some of these populations also recorded temporary increase of the absolute population number). For example, the 1921 census in Czechoslovakia (only one year after the Treaty of Trianon) shows 21% Hungarians in Slovakia,[85] compared to 30% based on 1910 census. The Allies were indifferent as to the exact line of the newly defined border between Austria and Hungary. By the time the victorious Allies arrived in France, the treaty was already settled, which made the outcome inevitable. Instead the Allies began a successful counteroffensive and forced the Armistice of 11 November 1918 that resembled a surrender by the Central Powers. 4 June - Treaty of Trianon, Treaty of Peace between the Allies and Hungary. Accordingly, the Allies assumed without question that the minority ethnic groups of the pre-war kingdom wanted to leave Hungary. [25] The political collapse of Austria-Hungary itself was now only a matter of days away. The concession eroded support of the communist government among professional military officers and nationalists in the Hungarian Red Army; even the chief of the general staff Aurél Stromfeld, resigned his post in protest.[50]. In absolute terms, Romanian troops had considerably fewer casualties than either Britain or France, however. Despite promises for the restoration of the former borders of Hungary, the communists declared the establishment of the Slovak Soviet Republic in Prešov (Eperjes) on 16 June 1919. WikiMatrix WikiMatrix . While the territories that were now outside Hungary's borders had non-Hungarian majorities overall, there also existed some sizeable areas with a majority of Hungarians, largely near the newly defined borders. The lines would apply until definitive borders could be established. The Hungarian self-disarmament made the occupation of Hungary directly possible for the relatively small armies of Romania, the Franco-Serbian army and the armed forces of the newly established Czechoslovakia. Iván T. Berend and G. Ranki, Economic Development of East Central Europe (New York, 1974). Czechoslovakia took control of Upper Hungary and Carpathian Ruthenia. The Hungarian Red Army moved its 1st and 5th artillery divisions—40 battalions—to Upper Hungary. The country also lost access to the Mediterranean and to the important sea port of Rijeka (Fiume), and became landlocked, which had a negative effect on sea trading and strategic naval operations. [79] These reasons are ground for debate about the accuracy of the census. The main reasons of this process were both spontaneous assimilation and the deliberate Magyarization policy of the state. Es ist das erste Mal , dass ein Mann , der den nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg unterzeichneten Friedensvertrag von Trianon ablehnt , unterstützt wird und in eine solch wichtige Position in Europa gewählt wird . For Hungarians, the outer territories were not seen as colonial territories, but rather part of the core national territory. [26] He even organized covert contacts with British and French diplomats in Switzerland during the war. A cura della Lega per la revisione del Trattato di Trianon. El Tractat del Trianon, signat el 4 de juny de 1920, és la conclusió de l'assemblea celebrada al palau del Grand Trianon del castell de Versalles , per tal d'establir l'status d'Hongria després de la seva derrota a la I Guerra Mundial. The Austro-Hungarian monarchy politically collapsed and disintegrated as a result of a defeat in the Italian Front (World War I). [69], The outcome of the Treaty of Trianon is to this day remembered in Hungary as the Trianon trauma. [141], Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary, Arrival of the two signatories, Ágost Benárd and Alfréd Drasche-Lázár, on 4 June 1920 at the, Austro-Hungarian Armistice, Aster Revolution and the First Hungarian Republic, Fall of the Hungarian liberal regime and communist coup d'état, Distribution of the non-Hungarian and Hungarian populations, Hungarians outside the newly defined borders, Michael Toomey, "History, nationalism and democracy: myth and narrative in Viktor Orbán’s 'illiberal Hungary'.".

Mani Spellate Stress, Fratelli Grimm Racconti Brevi, Fiat Stilo Usata, Oud Profumo Helan, Pizzeria Girasole Pofi, Mad Scuole Venezia, Film Completo Italiano Rex - Un Cucciolo A Palazzo, Menù Pizzeria Nababbo, L'onore E Il Rispetto 2 Puntata 4 Facebook,